About This Item
Paracetamol IV is indicated for the management of mild to moderate pain, the management of moderate to severe pain with adjunctive opioid analgesics, the reduction of fever.
Paracetamol exhibits analgesic action by peripheral blockage of pain impulse generation. It produces antipyresis by inhibiting the hypothalamic heat-regulating centre. Its weak anti-inflammatory activity is related to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis in the CNS.
Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) is thought to act primarily in the CNS, increasing the pain threshold by inhibiting both isoforms of cyclooxygenase, COX-1, COX-2, and COX-3 enzymes involved in prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. Unlike NSAIDs, acetaminophen does not inhibit cyclooxygenase in peripheral tissues and, thus, has no peripheral anti-inflammatory affects. While aspirin acts as an irreversible inhibitor of COX and directly blocks the enzyme’s active site, studies have found that acetaminophen indirectly blocks COX, and that this blockade is ineffective in the presence of peroxides. This might explain why acetaminophen is effective in the central nervous system and in endothelial cells but not in platelets and immune cells which have high levels of peroxides. Studies also report data suggesting that acetaminophen selectively blocks a variant of the COX enzyme that is different from the known variants COX-1 and COX-2. This enzyme is now referred to as COX-3. Its exact mechanism of action is still poorly understood, but future research may provide further insight into how it works. The antipyretic properties of acetaminophen are likely due to direct effects on the heat-regulating centres of the hypothalamus resulting in peripheral vasodilation, sweating and hence heat dissipation.
Dosage & Administration
Adults and adolescents weighing 50 kg and over: the recommended dosage of Paracetamol IV is 1000 mg every 6 hours or 650 mg every 4 hours, with a maximum single dose of Paracetamol IV of 1000 mg, a minimum dosing interval of 4 hours, and a maximum daily dose of Paracetamol of 4000 mg per day.
Adults and adolescents weighing under 50 kg: the recommended dosage of Paracetamol IV is 15 mg/kg every 6 hours or 12.5 mg/kg every 4 hours, with a maximum single dose of Paracetamol IV of 15 mg/kg, a minimum dosing interval of 4 hours, and a maximum daily dose of Paracetamol of 75 mg/kg per day.
Children >2 to 12 years of age: the recommended dosage of Paracetamol IV is 15 mg/kg every 6 hours or 12.5 mg/kg every 4 hours, with a maximum single dose of Paracetamol IV of 15 mg/kg, a minimum dosing interval of 4 hours, and a maximum daily dose of Paracetamol of 75 mg/kg per day.
Pregnancy & Lactation
Use in Special Population
Pediatric Use: The safety and effectiveness of Paracetamol IV for the treatment of acute pain and fever in pediatric patients ages 2 years and older is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of Paracetamol IV in adults.
Geriatric use: No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients.
Patients with Hepatic Impairment: Paracetamol is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment or severe active liver disease and should be used with caution in patients with hepatic impairment or active liver disease. A reduced total daily dose of Paracetamol may be warranted.
Patients with Renal Impairment: In cases of severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 ml/min), longer dosing intervals and a reduced total daily dose of Paracetamol may be warranted.